Others Interview Questions and Answers (265) - Page 5

What good leaders do?

Listen
Communicate clearly
Inspire others
Keep promises and commitments
Act in timely and firm manner
Optimistic in their outlook
Unbiased in their action
Approachable for issues
Leads from the front
Makes the team participate in decision making
Organized and structured
Recognizes achievements
Respects others
Delegates work
Etc
What are the key points of People Interactions?

Consider your team members as people and not resources
Take ownership
Invest in building relationships
Look at the situation from the other person’s point-of-view
What is the importance of Feedback?

In an environment where people are self-managed, it is very important to give feedback to ensure they are on the right track.
Fire in private and praise in public.
Positive feedback in public encourages the individual and motivates peers.
Negative feedback needs to given quickly to stop negativity from spreading but in private to reduce embarrassment to the individual.
Continuous feedback is more effective than feedback at end of year/project.
What are different People Management Styles?

The different styles are:
Directing
Coaching
Supporting
Delegating

Directive: The leader provides specific instructions and closely supervises task accomplishment. Structure, Control, Supervise

Coaching: Direct and closely supervise; also explain decisions, solicit suggestions, and support progress

Supporting: Facilitate and support efforts towards task accomplishment. Also share responsibility for decision making with subordinates.
Praise, Listen, Facilitate

Delegating: Turn over responsibility for decision-making and problem-solving to subordinates.

--
Before you are a leader, success is all about growing yourself. When you become a leader, success is all about growing others. - Jack Welch
Multiply a number without using the '*' operator.

Simplest answer that i could give is

for(i=0;i<n;i++)
{
num = num+num
}

Hope this helps...
How to swap value without using Temporary Variable ?

X = 10 Y = 2

X = X + Y; (10 + 2 = 12)
Y = X - Y; (12 - 2 = 10)
X = X - Y; (12 - 10 = 2 )

After this X = 2 AND Y = 10
What is window azure ?

Windows Azure is an open and flexible cloud computing platform from Microsoft that enables you to quickly build, deploy and manage applications across a global network of Microsoft-managed datacenters.

You can build applications using any language, tool or framework. And you can integrate your public cloud applications with your existing IT environment.

It delivers a 99.95% monthly SLA (Service Level Agreements) and enables you to build and run highly available applications without focusing on the infrastructure.
What is the OData ?

The Open Data Protocol (OData) is a Web protocol (http based) for querying and updating data.

OData does this by applying and building upon Web technologies such as HTTP, (AtomPub) and JSON to provide access to information from a variety of applications, services, and stores.

It enable a new level of data integration and interoperability across a broad range of clients, servers, services and tools.

OData is released under the Open Specification Promise to allow anyone to freely interoperate with OData implementations.
Difference between Azure Table storage versus SQL Azure ?

Azure Table storage : It is built on top of the Azure Storage platform.

• It comprises flexible or schema-less entities.
• No referential integrity between the tables, and no custom indexes.
• It can scale massive amounts of data due to the partition key.
• Can be thought as s single spreadsheet.


SQL Azure : It is an SQL Server that has been configured to be hosted on top
of the Windows Azure in a high availability mode.
• It comprises standard SQL Tables with indexes and referential integrity.
• It may not scale as far as Azure Table storage.
• Look familiar to any .Net developer who has used Sql server 2008 prior.
What is OpenAccess ORM ?

Telerik OpenAccess will generate the data access layer for your applications (C# or VB.Net) after just a few mouse clicks, effectively relieving you from a significant portion of your relational data persistence tasks.

The generated code has already been tested extensively by Telerik and conforms the latest object-oriented development standards.

So finally, OpenAccess ORM can save you between 20% and 85% of development and testing time.
What's the Hi/Lo algorithm in NHibernate?

A primary key is made up of two numbers - a "high" number and a "low" number.We can basically increment the "high" sequence, knowing that it can then safely generate keys from the entire range of the previous "high" value with the variety of "low" values. E.g. we have a "high" sequence with a current value of 44, and the "low" number is in the range 0-500. Then we can increment the sequence to 45 and know that keys 44/0, 44/1,.... 44/500 are all available.
What is the purpose of LIST function in Sybase?

It gives a comma separated list of value.

e.g. we have a table as under

ID     Name     Assets

------------------------------------
1 Bob Car
1 Bob Bicycle
1 Bob House
2 Jane Car
2 Jane House
3 Peter Boat
3 Peter Car
3 Peter Motorcycle


The needed output should be

ID     Name     Assets

------------------------------------
1 Bob Car,Bicycle,House
2 Jane Car,House
3 Peter Boat,Car,Motorcycle


Query

SELECT ID,NAME,LIST(ASSETS)

FROM SOMETABLE
GROUP BY ID,NAME

What is WinRT ?

It is a new framework or programming model written in C++ for building Metro style apps.

It is not a part of .Net. It is not based on Win32. But it replaces Win32 for metro development.

Supported languages are:
. C#
. Visual Basic
. C++
. JavaScript
What is the difference between HTML and XML?

1) XML was designed to describe data and to focus on what data is.HTML was designed to display data and to focus on how data looks

2) XML tags are not predefined. We must "invent" our own tags. The tags used to mark up HTML documents and the structure of HTML documents are predefined. (like <b>, <h1>, etc.).

3) XML can be used to Create new Languages.XML is the mother of WAP( Wireless Application Protocol) and WML (The Wireless Markup Language).HTML cannot do so.

4) All XML elements must have a closing tag.In HTML some elements do not have to have a closing tag. The following code is legal in HTML: <p>This is a paragraph
In XML all elements must have a closing tag, like this: <p>This is a paragraph</p>

5) Unlike HTML, XML tags are case sensitive.

6) Improper nesting of tags makes no sense to XML.In HTML some elements can be improperly nested within each other like this:<b><i>This text is bold and italic</b></i>

In XML all elements must be properly nested within each other like this: <bold><italic> This text is bold and italic </italic></bold>

7) With XML, white space is preserved.With XML, the white space in the document is not truncated.This is unlike HTML. With HTML, a sentence like this:
Hello              my name is John,
will be displayed like this:
Hello my name is John,
because HTML strips off the white space
What is NoSQL?

NoSQL is an umbrella term for all databases and data stores that don’t follow the popular and well established RDBMS principles and often relate to large data sets accessed and manipulated on a Web scale. This means NoSQL is not a single product or even a single technology. It represents a class of products and a collection of diverse, and sometimes related, concepts about data storage and manipulation.
What could be some of the key requirements for using NoSQL?

Some of the requirements that match the need for NoSQL are

•Rapid application development
– Changing market needs
– Changing data needs
•Scalability
– Unknown user demand
– Need for constantly growing throughput to access, add and update data
•Consistent performance
– Low response time for better user experience
– High throughput to handle viral growth
•Operational reliability
– High-availability to handle failures gracefully with minimal impact to the application
– Built-in monitoring APIs for easy ongoing maintenance
Explain CAP theorem

CAP theorem was developed by Eric Brewer in the year 2000.CAP stands for Consistency, Availability and Partition-Tolerance.

Consistency: If we wrote a data in one node and read it from another node in a distributed system, it will return what we wrote on the other node.

Availability: Each node of the distributed system should respond to the query unless it dies.

Partition-Tolerance: This shows the availability and seamless operation of the distributed system even the partition (add/remove node from different data center) or message loss over the network.
List out some of the major differences between RDBMS and NoSQL

1) NoSQL databases does not provide guarantees for atomicity, consistency, isolation and durability (commonly known as ACID property) as opposed to the traditional RDBMS.

2) NoSQL databases are generally schema-less - that is records in these databases do not require to conform to a pre-defined storage schema.

3) Compared to RAID storage (mirroring and/or striping) or synchronous replication which is available in traditional RDBMS, NoSQL databases employ asynchronous replication. This allows writes to complete more quickly since they don't depend on extra network traffic.

4) Both storage and server capacity can be added on-the-fly by merely adding more servers. No downtime is required. When a new node is added, the database begins giving it something to do and requests to fulfill. This gives more scalability to NoSQL database compared to traditional RDBMS .

5) NoSQL uses Shared nothing architecture.Instead of using a common storage pool (e.g., SAN), each server uses only its own local storage. This allows storage to be accessed at local disk speeds instead of network speeds, and it allows capacity to be increased by adding more nodes. Cost is also reduced since commodity hardware can be used.
What are the benefits of NoSQL document databases?

a) Flexible data model
Data can be inserted without a defined schema, and the format of the data being inserted can change at any time—providing extreme flexibility in the application, which ultimately delivers substantial business agility.

b) Easy scalability
Some NoSQL databases automatically spreads data across servers, requiring no participation from the applications. Servers can be added and removed from the data layer without application downtime, with data and I/O spread across servers.

c) Consistent, high performance
Advanced NoSQL database technologies transparently cache data in system memory—a behavior that is completely transparent to the developer and the operations team.
What is Map Reduce?

MapReduce is a parallel programming model that allows distributed processing on large data sets on a cluster of computers.MapReduce derives its ideas and inspiration from concepts in the world of functional programming.Map and reduce are commonly used functions in the world of functional programming. In functional programming, a map function applies an operation or a function to each element in a list. For example, a multiply-by-two function on a list [1, 2, 3, 4] would generate another list as follows:
[2, 4, 6, 8]. When such functions are applied, the original list is not altered.

Like the map function, functional programming has a concept of a reduce function. Actually, a reduce function in functional programming is more commonly known as a fold function. A reduce or a fold function is also sometimes called an accumulate, compress, or inject function. A reduce or fold function applies a function on all elements of a data structure, such as a list, and produces a single result or output. So applying a reduce function-like summation on the list generated out of the
map function, that is, [2, 4, 6, 8], would generate an output equal to 20.

So map and reduce functions could be used in conjunction to process lists of data, where a function is first applied to each member of a list and then an aggregate function is applied to the transformed and generated list.
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