QA (Testing) Interview Questions and Answers (96) - Page 2

What is DEFFERED State in QA ?

This is the State that is raised when Developer doesn't accept the Bug raised by the QA team !!!
What are the main advantages of Manual Testing over Automation Testing ?

They are many advantages but some of them are :

1. If there are less number of TestCases available then manual testing is the best.

2. Manual Testign allows to perform ad-hock (Random) testing.

3. The Short term costs can be reduced.

4. The more time the Tester spends on Manual Testing the greater the odds to find the real User Bugs .
What is the rule of a "Test Driven Development" ?

The rule of a Test Driven Development is to create the test cases prior to writing the actual code. It means that you'll actually be writing code for the tests before you find yourself writing code for the application.

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What is the basic dll of the NUNIT Unit Testing Framework ?


The class library or the application which is doing the testing should add a reference of the above dll

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Which one is not a testing tool in Dotnet Framework ?

NOTE: This is objective type question, Please click question title for correct answer.
In what Software Paradigm, "Test Driven Development (TDD)" fall ?

NOTE: This is objective type question, Please click question title for correct answer.
What is Black Box and White Box Testing?

Black box testing : This tests are based on requirements and functionality.Internal system design is not considered in this type of testing.

White box testing – This testing is based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application’s code. Also known as Glass box Testing. Internal software and code working should be known for this type of testing. Tests are based on coverage of code statements, branches, paths, conditions
What is the difference between Use cases, Test cases?

Use cases:
The Use case is made up of a set of possible sequences of interactions between systems and users in a particular environment and related to a particular goal. It will be developed mostly by Business Analyst based on the requirement specification.

Test cases:
Test cases are prepared by testing engineers, based on the Use cases from Functional Requirements Specification (FRS) to check the functionality of the system over the client's perspective. It is a specific set of steps consists of Test Description, Test case ID, Test Category, Actual Result and Expected Result. its main objective is to check the functionality of the system whether its meets the client specification or not.

Group of Test cases are called Test Suite.

NOTE: Based on Use case, Test cases will be written by the testers.
Explain the PDCA cycle ?

In Software development there are four important steps, also referred to, in short, as the PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) cycle.

Let's review the four steps in detail.

Plan: At this stage, youhave to establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the expected output. Clearly describe the goals and policies needed to attain the objective at this stage.

Do/Execute: At this stage, You have to implement the plan, execute the process and then make the product. Finally you have to collect the data from the below Ceck and Act steps.

Check: In this step, you have to study the actual results and compare with the expected output to ascertain any differences.

Act: Finally, you have to analyse the differences to get their route cause. And determine where to apply the changes which includes the improvement of the product.
So developers and other stakeholders of the project do the "planning and building," while testers do the check part of the cycle. Therefore, software testing is done in check part of the PDCA cyle.
Can you explain usability testing ?

Usability testing is a testing methodology where the end customer is asked to use the software to see if the product is easy to use, to see the customer's perception and task time. The best way to finalize the customer point of view for usability is by using prototype or mock-up software during the initial stages. By giving the customer the prototype before the development start-up you confirm that you are not missing anything from the user point of view.
What are the different categories of defects ?

Following are the 3 main categories of defects:

1) Wrong: If the requirements are implemented incorrectly, then they are stated as Wrong defects.
2) Missing: If the requirement is not done which is given by the customer. If a specification was not implemented, or a requirement of the customer was not noted properly, then it is a missing defect.
3) Extra: If a requirement is not given by the end user and if it is done,then it is called as an extra defect.
Explain about configuration management ?

The process of configuration management is the process in which the information which describes an enterprise's computer systems and networks, including all hardware and software components, is to be recorded and updated.
The main advantage of this configuration management is that the entire collection of systems will be reviewed and to make sure that any changes that are done to one system should not affect to any another system.
This can also be called as Unified Configuration Management(UCM) when it is used in software development. With the use of this UCM, developers will keep a track on the source code, documentation, problems, changes requested, and changes made.
Explain about the best testing model..

The Tailoring model is the best testing model.
The Tailoring is a process of adaptation of a process model to project-specifications and requirements.
In order to get the project-specific process model, the tailoring process will identify the products which are to be deleted and deletes them, and makes some required modifications in the product flows.
What are impact ratings reffered to in your projects ?

The impact ratings are of 3 types.They are:

1) Minor: These type of impact ratings does not affect the operations as they have very low impact.
2) Major: These type of impact ratings will affect the operations on a very large scale.
3) Critical: These type of impact ratings are powerful. They may cause the system to a halt and stops the show.
Types of verifications...

Types of verification are of 4 types. They are:

1) Inspection: It is the most effective way which is used to find the differences from the actual requirements. While doing system level testing, it does not look into the details of the code.
2) Analysis: In this type, the test item will be conducted with mathematical verification. This includes the estimation of execution times and estimation of system resources.
3) Testing: This type is also called as "White box" or "Logic driven" testing.The test item will trace the input values and check whether they are generating the expected output values or not. The typical techniques include condition testing, loop testing and data flow testing.
4) Demonstration: This can also be called as "Black box" or "Input/Output driven" testing. In this type of verification, at first the input values are given.Then the output values are compared with the expected output values.The typical techniques include error guessing, boundary-value analysis, and equivalence partitioning.
Explain the concepts of Unit Testing, Integration Tests, System Testing and Acceptance Testing ?

Unit testing - This testing is used to test a smallest unit of functionality, like a method or a class. These tests are used to focus on a particular feature.

Integration Tests - This type is used to test some units of code which build on unit tests.The difference between integration tests and unit tests is the environment, in which the integration tests will use threads, access the database to ensure that all of the code and the different environment changes will work correctly.

System testing - This testing is done to check whether all the requirements are successfully met or not.

Acceptance testing - This testing is used to check for a particular feature whether it meets the required input given by the end user.
What is meant by a test log ?

Test log creates an environment which consists of an integrated management environment where you can create and manage your entire test plan, other than your test cases.
It helps in managing the development life cycle.
It also helps in promoting the reusability of the test cases.
It helps in improving the efficiency.
It also helps in managing xml database.
It helps in documenting both automated and manual tet cases.
What is the importance of Requirements Traceability Matrix ?

In any organization, the requirements are given by the clients. In addition to the client's reqirements, the development team will allo give their suggestions for the best output of the product.
But, maintaining all the requirements and to check whether all the requirements are met or not, is somewhat a time taking process. This problem can be solved by using the Requirements Traceability Matrix.
The requirement tracing is the process of making the document by linking the user requirements and the work process (which includes software requirements,design specifications,software code,test plans) developed to implement and verify those requirements.
What is meant by the entry and exit criteria in a project ?

Entry Criteria:
The purpose of this criteria is to check whether the suitable environment is there for supporting the entire test process. In this criteria, the items has to meet the following:

1) The test hardware platforms which are installed should be checked whether they are configured and functioned properly.
2) The standard software tools which includes testing tools also should be checked about their successful installation and proper functionality.
3) The availabity of the documentation and design of the architecture should be done.
4) The test cases and the test plans should be reviewed and also must be signed off.
5) There should be the availability of a seperate QA environment.

Exit Criteria:
The main purpose of this criteria is to check whether the application has been successfully completed before existing the system test stage. The items has to meet the following:

1) Maximum test cases are executed
2) There should be no defects during a time of testing effort
3) Severity issues must be fixed.
Explain the differences between verification and validation ?

Verification is the process which takes place before the Validation process.
The difference between both the process is as discussed below:

The main aim of this process is to ensure whether the product is met with the requirements and the specifications given by the end user or not. Its objective is to check whether the data gathered is used in the right place, and in a right manner or not.

This process is mainly to check the product, if it is perfectly working or not for its intended use. It is also used to correct the product's design to meet the requirements.
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